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Weather under surveillance

Satellites now orbiting Earth will monitor our atmosphere and space weather.
COSMIC data points
COSMIC, a network of six satellites in low Earth orbit, will take 2,500 data measurements daily around the globe (green diamonds). This will nearly triple the amount of data collected by exisiting surface-launched weather-balloon sites (red circles).
Illustration by Bill Schreiner, UCAR
April 20, 2006
The accuracy of weather forecasts may improve given the April 14 launch of six satellites. COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate), which rocketed into low Earth orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, will provide real-time atmospheric data for thousands of points on Earth. The array is the first to provide global coverage, and the information it collects will help scientists predict weather as well as study long-term climate change.

The suite of six satellites will collect data via radio occultations, or interference, of 24 U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite signals. Molecules in Earth's atmosphere alter the amplitude and frequency of GPS signals. By measuring the amount of distortion, scientists can determine characteristics like air density, temperature, and moisture. Together, the satellites collect approximately 2,500 measurements daily, which nearly triples the amount of real-time data available to researchers.
COSMIC satellites
The six satellites that form COSMIC detect changes in GPS satellite signals passing through Earth's atmosphere. Distortions reveal temperature, moisture, etc. Not only will this information aid in weather forecasts, it will further space-weather research.
Illustration by Orbital Sciences Corporation
COSMIC satellites
The six satellites that form COSMIC detect changes in GPS satellite signals passing through Earth's atmosphere. Distortions reveal temperature, moisture, etc. Not only will this information aid in weather forecasts, it will further space-weather research.
Illustration by Orbital Sciences Corporation
Electron-density measurements in the upper atmosphere will aid space-weather research and may lead to predictions of interference with ground-based systems. Geomagnetic storms, for example, caused by energetic blasts of gas from the Sun, can disrupt communication-satellite signals and affect power grids on Earth's surface. Other data will aid in the study of Earth's gravity field, which changes as water is redistributed between the atmosphere and the surface.

Three ground-based stations — in Fairbanks, Alaska; Kiruna, Sweden; and Taiwan — monitor and control the satellites and downlink the data — they have received signals that all six satellites are working. Two data centers — in Boulder, Colorado, and Taiwan — maintain an online archive with information available to scientists within hours of the data collection. The $100 million project is a partnership among agencies in Taiwan and the United States. In Taiwan, the array is called FORMOSAT-3.
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