Tonight's Sky
Sun
Sun
Moon
Moon
Mercury
Mercury
Venus
Venus
Mars
Mars
Jupiter
Jupiter
Saturn
Saturn

Tonight's Sky — Change location

OR

Searching...

Tonight's Sky — Select location

Tonight's Sky — Enter coordinates

° '
° '

Does the time it takes different methods to create all the elements coincide with the universe’s accepted age?

Bill Attwell, Toronto, Canada
Life-of-stars
Life of stars. NASA/Wolfgang Brandner (JPL/IPAC)/Eva K. Grebel (Univ. Washington)/You-Hua Chu (Univ. Illinois Urbana-Champaign)
The Big Bang occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. Shortly after, the universe had lots of the lightest, simplest elements: hydrogen (element 1), helium (element 2), and a trace of lithium (element 3). Stars have produced nearly all other elements since then. Different kinds of stars create elements at different rates, all of which are consistent with the age of the universe.

Like the Sun, most stars have lifetimes of several billion years during which they steadily fuse hydrogen into helium. For a short period at the end of their lives, these stars burn helium to carbon (element 6) and sometimes oxygen (element 8). These kinds of reactions have been a constant source of new elements since the first stars formed not long after the Big Bang.

In some cases, such as a pulsing red giant star near the end of its life, the light elements are converted more quickly into elements much heavier than carbon or oxygen. This likely happens as the red giant gradually loses its outer layers and evolves to become a white dwarf; we think it takes several periods, each a few hundred years long.

Supernovae produce lots of new elements in just a few minutes or even seconds. The helium, oxygen, and other atoms used as fuel to burn into heavier atoms are already there — ready to ignite as the temperature rapidly increases when the outer layers of the dying star collapse. The sequence may run from iron (element 26) to uranium (element 92) and beyond in about 1 second. — Ian Roederer, Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, California
0

JOIN THE DISCUSSION

Read and share your comments on this article
Comment on this article
Want to leave a comment?
Only registered members of Astronomy.com are allowed to comment on this article. Registration is FREE and only takes a couple minutes.

Login or Register now.
0 comments
ADVERTISEMENT

FREE EMAIL NEWSLETTER

Receive news, sky-event information, observing tips, and more from Astronomy's weekly email newsletter. View our Privacy Policy.

ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
asy_darkmatter_300x250
Dark matter accounts for approximately 80% of the mass of the universe, but what exactly is it?
Find us on Facebook